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Rice in Rajasthan- A Detailed Overview


By, 

Rajesh Pandya* and P.K. Prem Meena

*Rice Breeder Agricultural Research Station

(Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture &Technology, Udaipur, MPAUT),

Banswara (Rajasthan), INDIA

I.     NAME OF THE STATE: Rajasthan

 

  1. INRTODUCTION

Covering a surface area of 3,42,239 sq km Rajasthan is said to be the largest state in India. This state constitutes for about 10.41 per cent of the entire geographical area of India and is located in the north-western region of the country. As of census 2001, this state has a population of 5.65 ctrore, which keeps on increasing every year. since then the average population density of the state is 165 people per sq. km.

From east to west and north to south, the state covers about 850km and 784 km respectively. it also has some of the main rivers of ndia flowing through it like the Luni, Mahi, Banganga, Kali Sindh, Parvati, Chambal and Banas. Apart from that, there are quite a few internal drainages that however got lost into the desert sands, only a short distance to its origin.

Predominantly an Agrarian state, 77 per cent of the population in Rajasthan lives in rural areas, out of which 70 per cent of them depends on agriculture as their main source of livelihood. Rajasthan’s geographical features mainly are dominated by the Aravalli range which further divides the state into two distinguished zones. The region to its north-west and west comprise of eleven districts that make up almost 61 per cent of the total surface area of the state. This region is known as the great Indian Thar Desert. The agricultural practices in this state are mainly rain fed. More than half, about 65 per cent of the crops cultivated in Rajasthan are done in the Kharif or wet season. However, even though the crops here are eagerly dependent on rainfall, rainfall in this state can sometimes be quite scarce, and quite uncertain. The farmers in this state however have adapted to it and more than 60 per cent of the irrigated lands here are under tube wells and wells, mainly depending on underground water. Having said that, there is not much good news for the farmers as the underground water table is declining by one meter every year. Nearly 61 per cent of the whole area lies in semi-arid and arid tracts, further explaining the low fertility of soils and negligible moisture retention capacities. Some areas also have shallow in depth and a high infiltration rate. More than one million hectare area is under problematic soils (alkaline and saline).   In addition to that, due to the scarce rainfall, the availability of ground water is also limited and the crops also suffer due to the high wind velocity and temperatures.

Table-1: Population and literacy in the state (Census 2001).

 

 

S. No.

 

Particulars

 

Population

% of total population

1

Total population

56473000

-

2

Male

29382000

52.03

3

Female

27091000

47.97

4

Rural

43268000

76.62

5

Urban

13205000

23.38

6

Schedule caste

7608000

13.47

7

Schedule tribes

5475000

09.69

8

Density (sq/km)

165

-

9

Literacy (%)

61.03

-

10

Sex ratio

922

-

Source : Zila Sankhikiya Rooprekha (2002) & Basic Statistics, Rajasthan (2002).

 

Ill. ZONAL INFORMATION

  1. Climate


As mentioned in the earlier paragraphs, the Aravali ranges divide the state into two distinct regions. This also plays a significant role in the climate and weather seen all around the state. Even though the whole of Rajasthan bears rather hyperthermic conditions, the regions to the western side of the Aravali ranges and other semi-desert and desert areas witness high extremes in temperatures and are quite hostile when it comes to the climate. There are long periods of severe droughts along with relatively low humidity and high velocity winds. On the other hand, the areas to the eastern side of the ranges experience a much calmer and stressing environment, but still witness 

variation in temperatures and rainfall. Climatically, every year in the state has been divided into three main conventional seasons, namely Hot weather season (March to mid June), rainy season (mid June to September) and cold season (October to February).

Temperature

Everyone who knows anything about Rajasthan knows how extreme the temperatures here can be. Much like any desert, while this place witnesses very hot days, there are equally cold nights as well. The high temperatures in the day start from sometime around March, and only keep increasing from April to June. The rise in the temperatures during these few months is witnesses all over the state uniformly. You will easily witness a maximum daily temperature of about 40 º C to 45 º C, while the minimum daily temperatures can go as low as 26 º C to 29 º C. 

  1. With the month of July, starts the monsoon seasons here. This is when the daily temperatures also start to fall. However, as per records, the lowest daily minimum and maximum temperatures are seen during the month of January. If you are interested in finding the average annual temperature of the whole state, it is 24 º C across every district, apart from Mount Abu, where it is 21 º C.

b.                Soil type/Nutrient management

 The soil types in Rajasthan come in a number of varieties depending on the region they are from. While in the northern zone, the soil is sierozems and gets alluvium deposits from the river Gaghar. In a number of places, these soils get intermixed with sandy material. However, usually they have a higher salt content and high exchangeable sodium; especially in the areas of high water table that have depressions. These soils are yellowish brown in color and have a loamy or silty clay texture along with a massive structure. These soils are calcareous in nature and their drainage conditions are quite good comparatively.

On the other hand, the soil found in the eastern region of the state are mainly alluvial as they are prone to recurring floods and water-logging. Once tested, the soil showed a calcareous nature of recent deposit. These soils have a deep sandy loam and loamy texture and show quite a clear development in their structural profile.

The south eastern zone of the state is where things get interesting. Here you will mainly find black soils which are alluvial in origin. Usually the soil’s texture varies from clay loam to clay and you can find some fine textured alluvium from the Deccan trap origin in some pockets here as well. the depth of these soils vary from shallow to very deep along with lime coated gravel and a Kankar layer at varying depths. These soils are moderately permeable and usually non-alkaline or saline. However, if the soil is poorly drained, you might see problems of soil salinity and sodicity.

The main soils of the southern zone are mainly grouped according to their dominance under the red loam (rendzina), medium black soil, gray brown loams and skeletal soils. While red loams are usually light to find textured, medium black soils are usually shallow, but can also be quite deep when it comes to depth.  However, these soils are usualy normal in reaction, quite well drained and sometimes calcareous in nature. The soil is quite often subjected to erosion hazards and because of this the area there is characterized by hill tops or bare rocks, deep soils and shallow soils in the valleys. Usually the organic carbon and the nitrogen content  in these soils are medium, but the phosphate content is quite low in red loam soils. Their water retention capacity is not something out of the ordinary and quite inadequate in lighter soils. Micro elemental deficiencies can be seen in pockets, especially deficiencies in Zinc and Sulphur. However, these soils are quite well supplied with potassium.

Apart from small pockets of salt, all affected soil lies scattered near the paddy growing tracts of the state.

c.        Rainfall and its distribution pattern

There is a high variation in the state of Rajasthan with an average annual rainfall of only 573 mm. the basic trend of isohyet lines lie from the northeast to the southwest. However, this state has seen a marked decline in their rainfall near the western side of the Aravalis range, which forms most of Rajasthan and covers the most surface area. However, the eastern side of the range does not have this problem. On that side, the rainfall gradually increases making the region rather humid (1001 to 1100 mm). The overall annual rainfall received by the whole state is highly variable in different parts of the state, but highly erratic all around. Even though the total precipitation is quite enough to grow a crop, Rajasthan’s agricultural production lacks quite a bit. They are not stable at all mainly because of the erratic and uneven nature of rainfall. The southwest monsoon is the main wind that brings rainfall to this state. More than 90 per cent of the total rainfall is received during this time, which are the months of June to September. July and August are considered to be the wettest months in the state, with over 66 per cent of the total annual rainfall. The monsoon showers can also sometimes continue till the first week of October. However, the number of rainy day each region receives can highly vary depeding on their location. For instance, while Jaisalmer receives only 10 days of rainfall, Jhalawar gets more than 35 days.

Moisture

The Pet, also known as the mean annual potential evapotranspiration also varies in this state. A maximum of over 2001 mm can be seen in northwestern parts, the minimum here is under 1301 mm. these includes districts like Dungapur and Banswara. On an average, the maximum PET is observed in the months of April and May, rising above 225 mm to 300 mm and the minimum, in the month of December has been recorded to be 50 mm to 80 mm. usually there is water deficit in two phases of the year. Once is during the pre-monsoon season, which lasts from March to June and the other is during the post monsoon season which starts from October onwards. All throughout Rajasthan, the imbalance noticed between rainfall and the PET is such that more water ends up being needed by plants to grow than is received by rain. The pattern and average distribution of annual water deficit is inversely proportional to the rainfall received.

Humidity

While the mean relative humidity of the state lies between 60 to 66 per cent, it can go as low as 50 per cent in the western region and as high as 70 per cent in the eastern region.

Weather Hazards

The eastern region of Rajasthan is more prone to thunderstorms than the western region. These thunderstorms usually occur in from May to September, but are more rampant during the months of June and July. There are nearly 40 to 45 thunder days every year, mainly located in the districts of Jhalawar and Jaipur, 30 to 35 days in districts like Kota and Ajmer, 25 days in the Jodhpur district and only 10 days in the districts of Barmer and Bikaner.

Even more dangerous than the thunderstorms in Rajasthan are the dust storms. On a average, Sriganganagar receives the highest dust storms every year, ranging from 25 to 27, while other districts like Bikaner receive 18, jodhpur receives 8, Jaipur receives 6 and Jhalawar receives only 3. This further goes to show that dust storms are more rampant near the western arid regions, and gradually decreases as you keep moving the the more fertile and semi-arid zones which have higher rainfall. Monthwise, the maximum number of dust storms occur in the month of June near northwestern dsitricts, while for the south-eastern regions, May is the notorious month. However, right after June the frequency of dust storms start declining, however, in the Northwest, it can continue up to September.

Hailstorms are quite rare in this state and their frequency is more in Jaipur, about every two to three years. However, they are very uncommon to be seen in desert areas. for instance, Ganganagar,

Witnesses one hailstorm in every 10 years or more, while other districts like Barmer, Bikaner, and Ajmer can expect one every three years.

d.     Agro-climatic zones

 

Based on agro climatic conditions, the state has been divided into following nine distinct.

Table-2: Agro climatic Zones of Rajasthan.

 

S. No.

Agro-climatic zone

Geographical Area (ha.)

1.

Ia

Arid Western plain

1243700

2.

Ib

Irrigated north- western plain

2063000

3.

IIa

Transitional plain of inland drainage

3693000

4.

IIb

Transitional plain of Luni basin

2942000

5.

IIIa

Semi-arid eastern plain

2948000

6.

IIIb

Flood prone eastern plain

2368000

7.

IVa

Sub-humid southern plain

3359000

8.

IVb

Humid southern plain

1721560

9.

V.                    Humid south-eastern plain

2696000

e.            Rice and cultural heritage in the state

 

Rice has been a staple crop in a number of cultures. There have been several songs, stories and even paintings inspired from the same, and it also has its uses in rituals and destivals. For the longest time it was considered to be divine by several emperors and kings. As a matter of fact, Rice as a food ingredient has shaped both the culture and the dietary habits of quite a few civilizations.

In Rajasthan, when a woman first enters her husband's house, a measure of rice is kept on the threshold. This she scatters through her new home inviting prosperity and happiness. When the groom arrives at bridge's home her mother welcomes him by applying Kumkum on his and sprays rice grains over him. Rice is thrown on newly married couples as a symbol of fertility, luck and wealth. In all type of warships and holly occasions Kumkum (Roli) tilak or teeka is made on the forehead and rice grains ( Axat) is applied on it.

The rice, sugar, milk, nuts, clarified butter, dry fruits are blended and cooked, attendants at the shrine jump into its center, to serve it as a holy offering to the pilgrims, the contents dramatically diminishing as the waiting crowds consume it as prasad.

IV.      RICE PRODUCTION SCENARIO

 

Rice is an important crop of Rajasthan grown in command area as well as area of high rainfall. The area in this crop is fluctuated from year to year depending upon rainfall.

The total area under rice was 1.28 lakh ha with the productivity 2031 kg/ha. (2007-08) The main reason for this very low productivity is dependency on rains in major rice growing area in state. The success of this crop in largely depends upon timely sowing and well distributed rains in growing season.

a.           Area

Table-3 : Area of rice in Rajasthan                                        (Area Lakh ha.)

 

Year

1970-71

1980-81

1990-91

2000-01

2007-08

Rajasthan

1.226

1.701

1.202

1.663

1.278

 

b.        Production

Table-4 : Production of rice in Rajasthan

(in Lakh tones)

 

Year

1970-71

1980-81

1990-91

2000-01

2007-08

Rajasthan

1.386

1.498

1.421

1.557

2.596

 

c.       Productivity

 

 

Table-5 : Productivity of rice in Rajasthan

 

(in kg/ha.)

Year

1970-71

1980-81

1990-91

2000-01

2007-08

Rajasthan

1131

881

1183

937

2031

 

 

Table-7:- Ecosystem wise area of rice in Rajasthan.                                                                                                                             (Area in ha.)

 

 

S. N.

 

Environment

 

Western

 

Eastern

South- eastern

 

Southern

 

Total

%

Contrib.

1.

Transplanted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irrigated

36175

5779

46833

342

89129

53.4

 

Rainfed

-

4944

-

22000

26944

16.1

2.

Upland

-

-

-

50868

50868

30.5

 

 

Total

 

36175

 

10723

 

46833

 

73210

16694

1

 

 

%

Contribution

 

21.7

 

6.4

 

28.0

 

43.9

 

 

The ecosystem-wise area under rice in these four zones is given in Table-7. The maximum area is under irrigated transplanted (53.4%), followed by rainfed uplands (30.5%) and rainfed transplanted (16.1%). The total transplanted area accounted for is 70.0 per cent in the state.

However, under rainfed transplanted conditions, transplanting is extremely delayed because of dependency on rain.

d.        Yield gap and its reasons

  • Delayed transplanting up to September in rainfed

  • Use of local tall varieties leads to poor production because of their low yield potential and susceptibility to

  • Timely opening of canals and concept of community nursery is mis

  • Low N use efficiency because of faulty method of fertilizer

  • Non-adoption of recommendations of nursery and planting techniques leads to poor plant

  • Lack of balanced use of nutrients leads to weak growth making the crop more susceptible to

  • Timely availability of seed of suitable varieties for direct seeded broadcasting as well as upland rainfed

  • Unavailability of seed of location and situation specific

  • Non adoption of basal dose of fertilizer particularly under rainfed upland conditions

  • High crop-weed competition, particularly under rainfed upland situation results in very poor production.

  • Incidence of insect pests and diseases causing severe damages to

  • Lack of plant protection measures against diseases and

Reasons for low productivity

 

  • The complex ecological situation of rainfed ecosystem consisting of upland and shallow low land conditions is one of prime reasons for low Rainfed ecosystem is handicapped with varied natural, socio-economic, organizational and technological constraints resulting in low productivity.

  • It is often found that upland rainfed crop suffered due to soil moisture stress at critical crop growth stage including drought, lack of resistant/tolerance to diseases and pests, in adequate plant population and low nutrients status of soils are responsible for low productivity of rice in upland

  • Transfer/adoption of improved production technology in harsh rainfed eco-system has not picked up its desired momentum. Therefore, productivity of rice in these ecosystem is considerably

  • High yielding varieties are fertilizer responsive /oriented. Yet, the farmers are using much less fertilizer per unit cropped area, resulting in poor productivity.

  • A number of high yielding varieties have been released for general cultivation but most of them are for irrigated eco-system and some improved varieties are available for rainfed eco-system.

  • State is facing drought situation frequently and irrigation facilities is not sufficient to offset hazards exist by vagaries of monsoon. Besides, cultivation is fully depending on monsoon with poor management package of

  • The cultivation of rice under upland conditions is subjected to different degrees of moisture stress, which affects plant growth, tillering capacity less leaf area, higher sterility, delayed flowering and lower harvest index (grain-straw ratio). These factors or combination of these contribute lower grain yield in upland rice

  • Upland rice fields are always infested with high degree of weed population which compete for water, nutrients and light than low land and

  • Farmers are forced to use local traditional varieties continuously due to lack of awareness about high yielding varieties.

  • Poor crop plant population in case of broadcast sowing method resulting in uneven germination (upland and direct seeded lowland). Delay in monsoon onset often results in delayed and prolonged transplanting and sub-optimum plant population (mostly in rainfed low lands).

  • In the high rainfed areas, the rain water is lost rapidly through deep percolation, because of the upland location and loose texture of the soil. In these soils the plant nutrient applied through fertilizers are lost rapidly and investment of fertilizer become risky. Further, low water retention capacity by the soil due to high permeability brings in moisture stress conditions quickly after cessation of

  • In the low rainfall regions, the crops suffer from iron and zinc deficiency in some soils. In the high rainfall regions diseases break out particularly Helminthosporium possibly due to imbalance nutrients availability in the

  • Non-availability of bullock drawn/power drawn transplanters for timely transplanting of rice

Major Research Gaps and Priorities

 

  • Development of HYV suitable for different micro farming situations having inbuilt resistance for biotic and abiotic

  • Breeding for quality

  • Development of suitable agro-techniques for production of hybrid

  • Forecasting models for bacterial leaf blight and correlating disease incidence with meteorological

  • Development of IPM

  • Runoff water harvesting for upland and low land

  • Use of drum seeder (sprouted seed) under rainfed puddled

 

  1. Major contributing factors in different ecologies

 

Te following suggestions are made to increase the rice productivity in different rice growing ecosystems.

  • Adequate number of improved /high yielding varieties may be evolved for rainfed eco- system, which constitutes nearly 60 per cent of the cultivated rice

  • Suitable technology and varieties may be developed for this region so that productivity could be

  • It is also absolutely necessary to develop adequate infrastructure for production and distribution of good quality seeds on large

  • Adoption/transfer of improved production technology seems to be on slow pace in rainfed areas; therefore, a special programme is needed to be launched in such areas to motivate the farmers to adopt improved

  • A awareness is required to be created among the farming community about balance use of fertilizers to increase their

  • Full potential of high yielding varieties is not realized. There is a bright prospect for tapping considerable portion of untapped remaining

  • For effective management of production package to suit the environment, it is needed to make wide exposure/publicity of high yielding varieties suitable for rainfed uplands and shallow low land situations along with improved package of practices to the farmers through Front line demonstrations, on farm trials

  • Deeper roots are desirable for upland rices because soil moisture increases with depth of the soil profile and a variety with deep roots can reach and use soil moisture at a greater depth resulting in high

  • Utmost care should be taken while using fertilizer in upland rice fields. Recommended dose and timely application of fertilizers always results in higher

  • The line sowing in upland rice areas through suitable seeding devices is required to be made popularized for desired plant population. This will facilitate to control weeds and also to carry out intercultural operations.

  • Due to drought and erratic rainfall, rice cultivation in uplands is always found risky and Varietal improvement still remains the major strategy for increasing productivity in upland areas. Therefore, scientists are required to take up this matter seriously so that the low productivity of up land rice can be improved to a greater extent.

  • A proper research programme is required to be carried out for improving physiological efficiency of the plant for better photosynthesis efficiency and translocation so as to reduce sterility under low light

  • Promotion of hybrid rice is required to be popularized among the farmers in suitable

  • Leguminous crops may be included in the cropping system in order to improve the soil

  • Saline and alkaline soils may be reclaimed by application of soil

  • Use of Bio-fertilizers such as Blue Green Algae, Azosprilleum, Azotobacter and Azolla may be encouraged among the farmers for supply of nitrogenous nutrient and their by reducing the cost of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers.

  • To encourage the Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach for effective control of pests and diseases by emphasizing the need based application of

  • There is need to promote ‘System of Rice Intensification’ (SRI) technology for increasing rice productivity in the

  • Strong extension network Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Integrated Nutrient Management(INM) for effective transfer of latest technologies, improvement of credit and market facilities and crop insurance are required for rained lowland

f.          Contribution to the GDP

 

  • Agricultural sector, accounts for 5 per cent.

v  Agricultural and allied sectorcontributesabout27 per cent to GSDP.

 

  1. REGION-WISE/DISTRICT-WISE RICE ECOSYSTEMS

 

Table-8 : Name of the Districts as per rice ecosystems in the state.

 

 

Irrigated Transplanted

Rainfed

 

Transplanted

Rainfed

 

upland

Hanumangarh

Kota, Rajsamnd,

Dungarpur

 

Ganganagar, Bhilwara, Bundi, Alwar, Bhartpur

Udaipur

 

Pratapgarh

Sawaimadhopur,

Chittorgarh, Banswara, Baran, Tonk

 

Jhalawar, Dholpur

 

VI.                    RICE PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS.

 

S. No.

Particulars

Cost (Rs.)

I

Input Cost

 

1

Cost of 25 kg HYV certified seed

750

2

Cost of 125 g Thiram/ Captan

120

3

Cost of 10 cart loads of cow dung

900

4

Cost of fertilizers

 

 

260 kg urea

1820

 

130 kg DAP

1170

5.

Cost of weedicide

650

6.

Cost of pesticides (depending on incidence)

450

 

Total

5860

II.

OPERATIONAL COST

 

1.

Land preparation (ploughing twice, pudding.

harrowing. leveling. bunding etc)

2100

2.

Seed treatment and making 1000 m2 nursery

300

3.

Hand weeding Nursery bed, manuring, spraying

200

4.

Application of basal dose of fertilizers

200

5.

Uprooting seedlings and transplanting

2600

6.

Applying weedicide and single hand weeding

600

7.

Top dressing of Urea twice

380

8.

Spraying/ dusting pesticide etc.

310

9.

Harvesting with sickle

400

10

Threshing and winnowing

1100

11

Drying and storage

450

12

Miscellaneous expenses

300

 

Total

8940

III

Total Expenditure (I+II)

14800

IV

RECEIPTS

 

 

Yield: Grain 6.0 ton/ha @ Rs. 28,000/ton

16,800

 

Straw 30 ton/ha @ Rs. 65/ton

1950

 

Gross Income

18750

V

Net Profit (from one hectare) (IV-Ill)

3950

  1. If modern farm implements like tractors, power tillers, transplanters and thresher are used, the

operational cost can he further reduced.

  1. If family labour is engaged to carry out various intensive operations, the operational cost can be educed

VII.           RICE AND RICE BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS-ZONE WISE

 

 

Agro-climatic zone

 

No. of Tehasils

 

Tehsils covered

 

Major crops

Predomina nt cropping system

Ia Arid

20

All tehsils of Bikaner,

Bajra, Kharif pulses,

Bajra,

Western plain

 

Jaisalmer, and

gram, wheat,

Kharif

 

 

Barmer districts and

sesamum, rape

Pulses

 

 

Phalodi,, Shergarh,

seed and mustard

based

 

 

Osian and Jodhpur of

 

 

 

 

Jodhpur district, also Dungargarh, Sujangarh, of Churu district

 

 

Ib. Irrigated north- western plain

12

All tehsils of Sriganganagar and Hanumangarh district

Wheat, cotton, sugarcane, gram, rape seed and mustard, Bajra, Kharif pulses, paddy and groundnut

wheat, cotton, sugarcane, gram, paddy based

IIa.

Transitional plain of inland drainage

22

All tehsils of Nagaur, Sikar and Jhunjhunu districts and Taranagar, Churu and Rajgarh of Churu district

Bajra, Kharif pulses, gram, wheat, rape and mustard, sorghum and sesamum

Bajra,

Kharif

 

pulses, gram based.

IIb.

Transitional Plain of Luni basin

16

All tehsils of Jalore and Pali district Reodhar, Sirohi and Shivganj tehsils of Sirohi district. and Bilara, Bhopalgarh tehsils of Jodhpur district

Bajra, sesamum, rape seed and mustard, wheat, Kharif pulses, sorghum, maize, cotton and castor

Bajra, sesamum, rape    seed and mustard, cotton based

III a. Semi-arid

27

All tehsils of Ajmer,

Wheat, bajra,

Wheat,

eastern Plain

 

Jaipur and Tonk district

barley, gram rape seed and mustard sorghum, maize, sugarcane, ground nut and cotton

bajra barley based

IIIb. Flood prone eastern Plain

31

All tehsils of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur district Mahua, Toda Bhim, Hindon, Nadauti, Bamanwas, Gangapur, Karauli, Sapotra and Bonli tehsils of Sawai Madhopur district

Wheat, bajra, rapeseed and mustard, gram, barley, sugar cane and sorghum

wheat bajra, rapeseed and mustard based

IVa. Sub- humid southern Plain

35

All tehsils of Bhilwara district, all tehsils except Dhariyawad. Salumber and Sarada of Udaipur district, all tehsils except Chhoti Sadri, Pratapgarh, Arnod and Bari sadri of Chittorgarh district and Abu road and Pindwara tehsils of Sirohi district

Maize, wheat, ground nut, barley and sorghum

Maize, wheat, based

IVb. Humid southern plain

16

All tehsils of Banswara and Dungarpur districts, Sarada, Salumber and Dhariyawad of Udaipur district and Chhoti Sadri, Pratapgarh Arnod and Badi Sadri of Chittorgarh district

Maize, wheat,gram, paddy and urd

Maize, paddy, urd, whear, gram based

V. Humid south-eastern

plain

24

All tehsils of Kota,Bundi,Baran and Jhalawara district, Sawai Madhopur and Khandar tehsils of Sawai Madhopur district

Sorghum, wheat, gram, maize, rape seed and mustard

Sorghum, Maize, gram, paddy based

 

 

Cropping Pattern.

The most popular cropping patterns are as below

 

Kota

 

Irrigated rice -           Wheat -                                    Summer Moong/Vegetable Irrigated rice -                                    Barseem/Lucerne

Irrigated rice -           Wheat/Barley/Vegetable

 

Banswara

 

Irrigated rice -           Wheat -                                    Summer Moong Irrigated rice -                                    Gram

Irrigated rice -           Wheat/Barley/Maize

 

VIII.        RICE GROWING SEASONS OF DIFFERENT REGIONS

 

Rice is important Kharif crop of Rajasthan. During Rabi season approximately 10,000 to 15,000 ha. area is covered in Banswara district. Generally, seedlings are raised in the second week of June and transplanted in the field after 30-40 days. In the rainfed areas, direct sowing is often practised with the onset of monsoon showers. The crop is harvested in October- November.

For Rabi crop seedlings are raised in the month of November and transplanted in December.

IX.        RECOMMENDED PACKAGE OF PRACTICES

 

  1. Varieties/hybrids

 

In order to improve yield potential of Basmati and Kamod types, these were crossed with Ratna, Pusa 150, BK 79, Vani, Chambal, BK 190, IET 7318, IET 7310 and Sona. The following varieties have been developed/identified in the state.

Transplanted Rice Varieties

 

BK 79, a derivatives of cross (TN 1 x NP 130) x Basmati 370 developed in the state has been found suitable to replace traditionally grown tall Basmati types in the state. It qualifies the quality characteristics of Basmati varieties along with high yield and early maturity in comparison to Basmati 370. The variety has been released for general cultivation. BK 79 yielded nearly 30 per cent higher and matured nearly 10-15 days earlier than Basmati 370. The panicles are compact, long and fully exerted with brownish colour at flowering stage. It has got long slender translucent grains with good cooking quality. It is reported to be resistant to green leaf hopper.

BK 770 (IET 8581), a cross derivatives of BK 79 x Basmati 370 has significantly out yielded Basmati 370 and other check varieties like Ratna and Sona. In All India Coordinated Trials also this culture has stood at 3rd and 4th position by yielding significantly higher over checks and other varieties, It is a medium duration variety maturing in nearly 130-135 days from seed to seed, possessing long slender, translucent aromatic grains.

Mahi Sugandha has been developed from cross of BK 79 x Basmati 370. Mahi Sugandha is a semi dwarf, photo-insensitive indica variety maturing in 130-135 days from seed to seed under transplanting conditions. It qualifies all basmati quality characteristics, combined with high yield potential and is early maturing in comparison to Kali Kamod.

IET 13549 (Malva Basmati) is a dwarf Basmati culture with significant yield edge of 1.5 t/ha over Pusa Basmati-1 and found suitable for parboiled (Sela) Basmati rice. It is tolerant to multiple pests/diseases like leaf blast, BLB, stem borer. It yielded 9.6 per cent higher over Pusa Basmati 1 and 56.3 per cent over Toraori basmati and 43.6 per cent over Kali Kamod.

Pusa Sugandha - 4 is a cross derivates of P 614-12 x Pusa 614-35. It is a medium maturity variety matured in 135-140 days. This variety is resistant to blast, BLV and BPH. It’s also suitable for Saline Alkaline conditions. It has long slender grain and highly scented. It average grain yield 5800 to 6000 kg/ha.

Pusa Sugandha - 5 is a cross derivates of P 3A x Haryana Basmati. it is a early maturity variety matured in 125-130 days. This variety has long slender grain. This variety showed resistant to BLB, GM and moderately to leaf folder, BPH. Average grain yield is 5700-6000 kg/ha.

Direct Seeded Varieties

 

Vagad Dhan it is a semi dwarf variety matured in 80-90 days. It have coarse grain and yielded 18-20 qt/ha.

Kalinga 3 it is a tall variety matured in 75-80 days. It is a drought tolerant variety and having fine grains. It produced 15-20 qt/ha grain yield.

Ashoka 200 F it is a very early variety matured in 70-75 days. It is a tall variety having fine grain. It produced 18-20 qt/ha grain yield.

Package for practices for rice cultivation

 

Package

Transplanted

Upland

Seed rate

25 kg/ha.

80 kh/ha.

Seedling density (Nursery)

15-20 /m2

-

Spacing

15 x 15

20 x 15 cm

Seedling per hill

One or two

One or two

NKP dose

120:60:0 kg/ha.

60:30:0 kg/ha.

Plant Protection

Need based

Need based

 

 

Rice Hybrids recommended for Rajasthan

 

 

Hybrid

Yield t/ha.

 

% increase over Checks

Duration

 

(Days)

 

Type

KRH-2 ( 1996)

7.4

21.3 (Jaya)

130-135

Non-basmati

PRH-10 (2001)

6.5

39.9 (Pusa Basmati-1)

110-115

Basmati Quality

RH 204 (2003)

6.9

22.6 (Jaya)

120-125

Non-basmati

Package for cultivation of Hybrid Rice

 

Seed rate

15 kg/ha.

Seedling density (Nursery)

15-20 /m2

Spacing

15 x 15 or 20 x 15 cm

Seedling per hill

One or two

NKP dose

120:60:0 kg/ha.

Plant Protection

Need based

b.            Management inclusive of mechanization.

 

Mechanization of rice cultivation can play the key role in enhancing its productivity by creating optimal field conditions for timely establishment of crop, maintaining optimal plant population, efficient utilization of costly inputs and resources. For field preparation, different types of puddling equipment such as rotary blade puddler and peg type puddler have been widely adopted. Power tiller or tractor-operated rotary tillers and paddy disc harrow with tractor cage wheels are also common. Transplanting however is still being done manually but the self- propelled mat type transplanters are now picking up. Drum type seeders for drilling of sprouted seeds under wetland conditions and a variety of conservation agriculture seed drills for direct drilling of rice are being adopted by the farmers as these drills are also being used for establishment of subsequent wheat crop under crop residue conditions without tilling. The technology is site-specific though has a widespread application. For harvesting and threshing operations both wheel and track type combines, and axial flow threshers have been widely adopted.

The erratic and uncertain rainfall forces the tribal farmer to go for subsistence level of farming because of least risk bearing capacity. This has been a major constraint for poor adoption of technology.

X.        INDIGENOUS TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE (ITKs) SPECIFIED TO THE STATE.

In order to take up varietal improvement programme, a survey of different paddy growing areas was conducted. Special emphasis was given to find out the nature of existing types, their edaphic and climatic requirements and agronomic practices.

Nearly 200 local types were found under cultivation in southern zone. These varieties are tall and compact in habit, having only a few numbers of effective tillers. Except Basmati, Delhi Sal, Jeera Sal, Nawabikolem and Rajbhog, other varieties are coarse grained. The duration varies from 93-160 days. The coarse varieties are early and poor yielding as compared with the fine grained varieties. Suthar, Patharia, Kamod and Basmati are the popular varieties of the zone. Where water-logging is a problem due to flooding and ill-drained conditions, the variety Ropadi is cultivated. This variety has coarse, black-grained panicle.

 

Table-9: Predominated local rice varieties cultivated in the state.

 

S.

No

Varieties

Eco- system

Duration (days)

Awning

Grain

 

Yield (q/ha)

Remarks

1.

Lal Sutar

Upland

96

Al

5-8

Coarse, Golden panicle

2.

Kala Sutar

Upland

106

Al

5-8

Coarse, black L and P

3.

Batika sutar

Upland

93

Al

8-10

Coarse , straw

4.

Safed parmal

Upland

120

Al

8-10

Coarse, straw

5.

Patharia

Upland

95

Al

5-8

Coarse and black panicle

6.

Tukri sal

Upland

95

Al

6-10

Coarse, straw

7.

Dhania sal

Upland

120

Awned

8-10

Short grained, red awns

8.

Chhoti pankhi

Upland

125

Al

8-10

Coarse grain , L and P straw coloured bigger sterile glumes

9.

Dhimani

Upland

95

Al

8-10

Coarse, straw coloured L and P

10.

Sutar sal

Transplanted

105

Al

10-12

Coarse straw

11.

Delhi sal

Transplanted

108

Al-P

15-20

Fine, Straw L and P, slightly pigmented plant base

12.

Basmati

Transplanted

156

Al-P

12-15

Fine, Straw L and P, slight pigmented plant base

13.

Kamod

Transplanted

150

Al

10-15

Media fine, straw L and P, apiculus                  pigmented, scented

14.

Kolombo

Transplanted

110

Al

15-18

Fine,     golden             coloured pigmented

15.

Kali Kamod/ Kala Badal

Transplanted

150

Al-Pa

15-18

Medium fine, highly scented,                         panicle pigmented

16.

Jeera              sal/ Zed Zeera

Transplanted

130

Al

10-12

Medium fine, straw colour L and P

17.

Nawabi Kolam

Transplanted

160

Al

8-10

Medium     fine,                   scented straw L and P

18.

Ropadi

Broadcasting

130

Al

8-10

Coarse,      Black                  panicle deep-water paddy.

 

Al = Awnless, PA = Partialy awned, L = lemma, P = Palea

 

  1. BYPRODUCTS/ EXTENDED USE OF RICE SPESIFIC TO THE

Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products.

Rice bran is an important by-product of the rice milling industry. It constitutes about 5 to 7 percent by weight of the brown rice and is abundant in oil (18 to 20 percent in raw rice bran, 22 to 25 percent in parboiled rice bran). The deoiled bran, which is a rich source of protein (17 to 20 percent) and vitamins (vitamins A and E), is used as a cattle and poultry feed. It commands a good market both within India and abroad and is a good source of foreign exchange earnings.

a.        Usage and consumption

 

Rice is considered to be a staple food not only in India but in Rajasthan. Apart from the rice grain, byproducts of rice grain and paddy can be used to make wonderful products and give value addition to rice. Two wonderful techniques have been developed useful for common masses by using rice husk ash, which is considered to be a waste product coming out from the rice milling industry.

·        Rice Husks

  • Rice Bran

·        Rice Starch

  • Rice Straw


·        Rice used in Beverage Making

  • Rice Paper

·        Rice Glue

  • Rice Vinegar

b.       


Market value

Table-10: Market-wise report on 01/01/2009

 

Market

Arrivals (Tonnes)

Variety

Minimum Price (Rs./Quintal)

Maximum Price (Rs./Quintal)

Modal Price (Rs./Quintal)

Rajasthan

Kota

1256.1

Fine

1050

2290

1500

Udaipur

1.0

Coarse

740

900

875

Table-11: Market-wise report on 01/01/2010

 

Market

Minimum Price (Rs./Quintal)

Maximum Price (Rs./Quintal)

Modal Price (Rs./Quintal)

Rajasthan

Baran

1134

2311

1522

Bundi

1100

3200

2400

Hanumangarh

2100

2100

2100

Kota

1151

2850

2050

c.       Milling products

  • Broken Rice

·        Rice Flour

  • Rice Milk

·        Rice Pudding


  • Rice Cakes (mochi)

·        Rice Soy Milk

  • Red Yeast Rice

·       Rice based food products

d.   Rice based food products

Rice, a delicacy in Rajasthan, was served as a sweet with the addition of sugar, saffron and dried nuts and raisins. In Rajasthan, rice is cooked in boiling milk and the mixture is then

sweetened with jaggery to form Kheer.

In addition rice is used in many ways as food or other preparations,, such as Rajasthani Pulavu, Suji Halwa, Suji Ladoo, Khichra/ Khichri, Rice Sevai, Rice Noodles, Pohas, Rice Papad, Murmure (Puffed rice) Rice Roti etc.

XII.      RICE AND COMMERCE (EXPORT REVENUE GENERATION)

The rice export performance achieved in recent years, although praiseworthy, has raised apprehensions about India's capability to continue as a major rice exporter in the years to come. This achievement has made India self-sufficient in foodgrains in general and rice in particular, with a small surplus for export. Pusa Basmati-1, Mahisugandha, Basmati-370 and Pusa Sugandha 4 are promising basmati rice verities for export purpose.

In addition to growing unique long grain basmati varieties, State also abounds with many short grain aromatic types which enjoy patronage in certain parts of the state on account of their desirable cooking and eating quality features. These varieties includes Kamod, Basmati (Local), Kalikamod, Kala Badal and Jaljeera. Small volumes of medium and short grain rices of both semi-sticky japonica and indica types are traded internationally.

XIII.    SPECIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN RICE SECTOR OF THE STATE.

  1. Integrated Cereals Development Programme in Rice based Cropping Systems Areas (ICDP- Rice)

  2. In the Mid-Day-Meal Programme different recipes of rice as khichdi, sweet rice etc are

  3. De-oiled rice barn used for manufacture of cattle feed will now be exempted from

  1. Rice “Seed Minikit”

  1. Rice production The one week to three-month training programmes are organized by the State agricultural universities.

  2. Extensive field demonstrations and training programme for farmers and farm labourers are other components of the programmes for effective transfer of crop production

  3. Frontline demonstrations are being conducted by State Agricultural Universities and State Department of

XIV.    STATUS OF RECENT RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES.

  1. SRI

Cultivating a single kilo of rice requires 5,000 litres of water. Rajasthan has abot 0.80 lakh hectares under irrigated paddy, so imagine all the water required. If the system of rice intensification (SRI) were to be applied on all this land we would be able to cut water requirement for paddy by 50 per cent and simultaneously boost rice production by 50 per cent.

Benefits of SRI

  1. Seed requirement reduced by 65-70 per

  2. Saving of water by about 35-45 per

  3. More number of tillers/productive

  4. More number of spikelets per

  5. Uniform

  6. Head rice recovery is

  7. Earlier maturity by 5-20

  8. Healthier plants resistant to major pests and

  9. Yield advantage over the conventional method by 5 to 2 times.

  10. Less competition between rice plant and

 

Work on SRI is also initiated in Rajasthan, recently. A field experiment comprising of four plantings pattern of Pusa Sugandh-4 (20 x 20 cm, 25 x 25 cm, 30 x 30 cm and 15 x 20 cm) with four fertility levels under the adoption of SRI practices was conducted during kharif 2008 & 2009 in RBD design with three replications. The planting pattern at 25 x 25 cm with 100 per cent RDF recorded highest yield of 37.73 q/ha over rest of the planting patterns, 30 x 30 cm (29.82 /ha), 20 x 20 cm (35.26 /ha) and 15 x 20 cm (35.02 q/ha).

b.   Hybrid rice

 

Area under hybrid rice is negligible only some private agency testing hybrids. No published data are available. Assistance of NSC / SFCI State seed agencies and also private agencies is required for seed production. Farmer's training programmers for hybrid rice seed production should be promoted.

c.   Aerobic rice / conservation agriculture

 

Traditional lowland rice with continuous flooding has relatively high water inputs. Because of increasing water scarcity, there is a need to develop alternative systems that require less water. “Aerobic rice” is a new concept of growing rice. Since aerobic rice is targeted at water-short areas, socio-economic comparisons must include water-short lowland rice and other upland crops. The development of high-yielding aerobic rice is still in its infancy and germplasm still needs to be improved and appropriate management technologies developed.

Work on this aspect is also initiated in southern Rajasthan. GP Dhan (Gramin Pratap Dhan) an early variety and having coarse grain is found to be suitable for aerobic conditions.

d.    Biotechnological intervention / golden rice

 

Work on this aspect is in progress.

 

e.  IPM/IDM

 

  • Raising healthy nursery: apply carbofuran granules @ 40kg/ha or Phorate @ 12.5 kg/ha of nursery bed before 5-7 days of pulling of the seedlings in endemic areas of gall midge and stem

  • Use of disease free

  • Seed treatment with Carbendazim 50 WP @2.5 g/kg seed or soaking seed in Carbendazim @1g/l of water for 24 hours or spraying Propiconazole 25 EC (Tilt) @ 1ml/l or Hexaconazole 5 EC (Cantof) @2ml/l or Validamycin 3@ 2ml/l.

  • Transplanting at appropriate stage after removal of terminal part (2-4”) of seedling to reduce the chance of carrying and migration of immature stages of yellow stem borer and leaf

  • Install one light trap (200W mercury lamp) per hectare to catch the adults of some nocturnal pests such as tobacco caterpillar (positively phototropic).

  • Install 5-6 pheromone traps per hectare (change septa after 3 weeks), specific for male adults of tobacco caterpillar (separate pheromone for each).

  • Avoid excess N and

  • Collection of egg masses and larvae of

  • Use of rope in rice crop for dislodging caseworm and leaf folder larvae

  • Need based spray of endosulphan 35EC or Formothion 25 EC or Monocrotophos 36 WSC or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 0 lit./ha or Acephate 75SP @ 500g/ha.

 

f.          INM

 

Based on experiments conducted in southern Rajasthan, the integrated use of chemical fertilizers and organic manures have been found to be quite promising not only in achieving high productivity but also in providing stability in crop production. Among organic manures, vermicompost is a well known source which release nutrients into simpler and available form. Apart from the nutrient source, their favorable effect on improving soil structure and stimulating microbial growth is well established. Azotobacter and phosphobacateria produce growth hormones viz., Indolacetic acid and gibberelin. These hormones stimulate root growth and development. The use of growth stimulating seed inoculants helps to accelerate the uptake of plant nutrients from applied chemical fertilizer by increasing the root growth. VAM inoculation increases the phosphate activity. Azotobacter population in the rhizosphere soil has been reported to increase in the presence of FYM and mixed inoculants.

It may be concluded that application of 75% recommended doses of NP through fertilizers in combination with 25% N through FYM along with Azotobacter + PSB + VAM appears to be a good proposition for getting high yield of upland paddy as this treatment gave the maximum yield of rice of 24.75 q /ha. with the maximum values of net returns (Rs.17937 /ha) and benefit : cost ratio (2.23).

g.    Any other N.A.

 

  1. ORGANIZATIONS (GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENT)

 

Till, 1962, Rice Research was under control of Directorate of Agriculture, Rajasthan, Jaipur. The stup was as given below:

Director of Agriculture àJoint Director of Agriculture (Research) à Economic Botanist .Assistant Rice Breeder, Agricultural Research Station, Banswara and Kota are the leading stations carried outwork on rice in the state. Some of work on rice varietal testing is also being carried out at ARSS, Hanumangarh.

Presently there are two Agricultural Universities in the state, namely, Swami Keshvanand Rajasthan Agriculture University (SKRAU) at Bikaner and Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology (MPUAT) with headquarters at Udaipur. Out of the four rice growing zones, Northestern Plain and transitional flood-prone zones are located in SKRAU where the rice research is carried out under non-plan by the Junior Scientists (Assistant Breeders) whereas the other two zones, humid Southeastern and humid Southern plain, are under the control of Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology. An ICAR scheme for rice improvement has been operating in humid Southeastern Plain zone since December 1968 at ARS, Kota headed by an Assistant Breeder with one more scientist (Assistant Agronomist) whereas, the rice improvement in humid Southern Plain zone is looked after under non-plan by Rice Breeder. The Rice Breeder stationed at Agriculture Research Station, Banswara has been designated as the team leader who coordinates the rice research activities in the state. (Dr. Rajesh Pandya, Rice Breeder is looking after the work).

Vice Chancellor à Director of Research à Zonal Director of Research à Senior Crop Specialist à Assistant Crop Specialist

XVI     CONSTRAINTS IN RICE PRODUCTION.

Rice is one of the important crops of the state, the crop is grown under diversified farming situations in the state. Under command area, where assured irrigation water is available for raising seedlings in time, timely planting of the crop is being practiced. In other areas, where rainfed rice culture is commonly practiced, delayed transplanting (as raising seedlings depends on rain) or direct seeding (broadcasting) either in puddle fields or on dry lands (drilling on upland) is a common method of rice cultivation.

The major constraints faced by the farmers are enumerated below:

a.     Biotic stress - Insects, Diseases, Nematodes, rodents, and weeds.

Pest and disease

Pest and diseases in rice are not so serious problems so far. However, sporadic appearance of stem borer, army worm, leaf folders, Gundhi bug and WBPH among insect pests

and BLB, Khaira and Helmithosporium among diseases causes a serious threat to the rice cultivation in the area.

Crop-weed competition

Under direct seeded rice crop, particularly under upland situations where drilled paddy is grown on dry lands, there is heavy weed-crop competition. Many a time, this results in total failure of the crop if weeds are not controlled in time.

Major Weeds are as below

Grasses - Jungle rice (Echino chloa colonum), Sowan (Echino chloa. Crusgalli). Sedges - Nut grass (cyperus iria), Madurkoti (Cyperus difformis).

Broad leaf weeds -Bhangra (Eclipta alba), Dad mari (Ammenia baccifera).

 

b.   Abiotic stress — Temperature, drought, water logging, saline problems. 

Moisture stress.

The success of rainfed rice culture mainly depends on the intensity, distribution and duration of rainfall. The crop generally suffers moisture stress at one or the other critical growth stage because of long dry spell. The occurrence of frequent dry spells at different growth stages of the crop results in either total failure of the crop or poor yields due to high spikelet sterility caused due to partial exsertion of panicles. Moisture stress during germination, active tillering stage or just before flowering brings down grain yields markedly. The reproductive stage is the most sensitive stage for moisture stress resulting in chaffiness of the grains. There is a lack of suitable varieties for such situations.

 

Poor fertilizer use

Poor use of fertilizers in irrigated as well as in dry land rice cropping system is still the major constraint for rice production in the state as the farmers prefer getting an assured crop without fertilizer application instead of taking any risk by investing on fertilizers. It results in direct seeding of rice without application of basal fertilizers which ultimately results in poor initial vigour and poor tillering.

Fertilizer application in flowing water

In some of the areas, particularly in Dungarpur district, paddy cultivation is done on sloping lands where water flows from one field to another. The seedlings are planted with the onset of monsoon. Under such conditions, fertilizers application is a problem because of continuous flow of water.

Late planting

Because rice cultivation in the state is monsoon-dependent, the cultivators raise their seedlings with the onset of monsoon in the month of July and continue transplanting up to late August or mid September which results in very poor yields. The varieties used for this type of rice culture are local with low yield potential.

Soil problems

Due to ill drainage, soil salinity has been observed in rice growing areas. Zinc deficiency too, has been widely observed both in uplands as well as in transplanted rice fields.

c.   Institutional constraints 

Research of rice is sponsored by State Govt. under non-plan Scheme at ARS, Banswara, whereas at ARS, Kota, rice research work is supported by AICRIP.

d.   Socio-economiC constraints.

 

As majority of the farmers belong to scheduled castes or scheduled tribes, socio- economically, they come under small and marginal group of farmers and their investment capacity is very poor. The cost-intensive technologies are the major deterrent to the widespread adoption of high yielding varieties of rice

XVIII.               STRATEGIES AND MODERN TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE RICE PRODUCTION.

  • increased water efficiency (Aerobic Rice, SRI)

  • increased nutrient efficiency

  • mproved drought tolerance

  • integrated pest management

  • enhance the nutritional value of rice through modifying the genetic (Golden rice)

  • Hybrid Technology

  • Rice

XIX.     STATUS OF SEED PRODUCTION OF MAJOR VARITIES/AGENCIES INVOLVED/DEMAND AND SUPPLY.

Seed Producing Agencies (Govt. Sector)

 

¨      SKRAU, Bikaner

  • MPUAT, Udaipur

Seed Producing Agencies (Public Sector)

 

¨       Rajasthan state Seed Corporation (RSSC)

  • Tilam Sangh

¨       National Seed Corporation (NSC)

  • State Farm corporation of India (SFCI)

¨       Krishak Bhartiya Cooperative Ltd.(KRIBHCO)

Seed Producing Agencies (Private Sector)

 

¨      Rajasthan State Certified seed Producers Association, Sriganganagar, through its members.

  • Seed Association of India, through its

¨      Others private seed companies.

In all, there are about 149 seed producers who are, at present, registered with RSSCA.

Paddy seed production program of RSSC.                                                      (Seed in qtls)

 

 

Crop

 

Ideal SMR

Actual BS lifting

 

during Kh-2007

FS Prod. as per

 

ideal SMR

FS being produced by

 

RSSC

Paddy

80

0.76

60.8

40

Target for Conversion of B/S in to F/S by RSSC during 2008-09 & 2009-10.   (Seed in qtls)

 

 

Crop

 

Ideal SMR

BS Indent

 

for 2008-09

BS Indent

 

for 2009-10

FS Production

 

in 2008-09

FS Production

 

in 2009-10

Paddy

80

1.0

1.11

80

89

Seed Replacement Rate (SRR%): Existing, Desirable & Plan up to 2011-2012.

 

 

Crop

SRR%

 

02-03

SRR%

 

03-04

SRR%

 

04-05

SRR%

 

05-06

SRR%

 

06-07

SRR%

 

07-08

Desirable

 

SRR (%).

Plan

 

08-09

Plan

 

09-10

Plan

 

10-11

Plan

 

11-12

Paddy

6.25

3.33

2.63

4.84

7.61

6.24

25

20

25

28

30

 

XX.           MODERN AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS USED IN RICE PRODUCTION.

 

  • Runoff water harvesting for upland and low land

  • Use of drum seeder (sported seed) under rainfed puddled

  • Testing of bullock drawn implements like thresher, puddler, ratovator, transplanter will also be tested.

XXI.      CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD

In order to fulfill the need of the area, some new approaches have been proposed which will ultimately help developing suitable high yielding varieties for different micro-farming situations having in built resistance for biotic and abiotic stresses.

The present production levels of high yielding varieties will be protected to bring stability in production. Hence, breeding for higher yield potential with high stability will continue on priority in breeding programme for irrigated rice. Efforts will also be made to strengthen the programme on breeding for quality rice based on physio and bio-chemical parameters.

Resistance to diseases is often associated with nutritional deficiencies. The study this aspect is to be initiated for resistance to major diseases and insects. Hence, breeding for multiple resistances involving screening techniques backed by physiological and bio-chemical assessment are required to be standardized.

 

Development of short duration varieties for late planting conditions needs to be accelerated. Such varieties should have synchronous maturity and greater partitioning coefficient which can regulate source sink relationship.

XXII.         FUTURE THRUST IN RICE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES.

 

  • Development of suitable agro-techniques for production of hybrid

  • N and P fertilizer use efficiency in rice and rice based cropping

  • Studies on irrigated nutrient management on productivity of rice based cropping

  • Efficacy of various new herbicides for effective control of weed flora in transplanted

  • Development of suitable and low cost package of practices for transplanted

  • Pathology of paddy blast under artificial inoculation condition will be

  • Efficacy of various antibiotics and botanicals against paddy bacterial leaf blight will be tested under natural and artificial inoculation

  • Recent advance high yielding varieties of paddy will be screened against paddy leaf and neck blast, bacterial leaf blight and helminthosporium blight resistance under natural and artificial

  • Appropriate forecasting models will be formulated for bacterial leaf blight of paddy by correlating disease incidence with meteorological

  • Time of maximum insect infestation be worked

  • Eco-friendly chemicals can be tested for controlling the insect

  • Beneficial insect fauna associated with rice eco-system should be

  • IPM module will be involved for better pest

 

*******

 

Appendix- 1: Area, Production and Productivity of rice in Rajasthan State.

 

 

Year

 

Area (Lakh ha.)

Production

 

( Lakh tones)

 

Productivity (kg/ha.)

1970-71

1.226

1.386

1131

1980-81

1.701

1.498

881

1990-91

1.202

1.421

1183

2000-01

1.663

1.557

937

2007-08

1.278

2.596

2031

 


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